There are three types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes: Usually diagnosed in children and young adults.
- Type 2 diabetes: The most common form and the most often diagnosed form in adults.
- Gestational diabetes: Can appear during pregnancy and can create a high risk for type 2 diabetes later in life.
The cause of diabetes is unknown, but risk factors for type 2 diabetes have been identified: they include obesity, family history of diabetes, increasing age, a poor diet high in processed foods, and lack of regular exercise.
Know the symptoms of diabetes and discuss any you are experiencing with your doctor:
- Frequent urination
- Blurred vision
- Excessive thirst
- Slow healing sores or frequent infections
- Extreme hunger
- Tingling sensation in the hands and/or feet
- Unexplained weight loss
- Red, swollen, sensitive gums
- Increased fatigue
The chart below explains some of the typical, primary tests for type 1 and 2 diabetes, prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Only your doctor can determine which test or tests are appropriate for you, based on your symptoms, risk factors and other important personal information.
|Test||What to expect||Type 1 & 2||Prediabetes||Gestational|
|Glycated hemoglobin (AIC)||Blood test that measures average blood sugar level for the past 2-3 months||X||X|
|Random blood sugar test||Blood test taken at a random time||X|
|Fasting plasma glucose (FPG)||Blood test taken after an overnight fast (test may be taken twice to ensure accuracy)||X||X|
|Oral glucose tolerance test||Blood test taken after an overnight fast and again two hours after drinking a sugary drink||X||X|